Flood Management Tool Series, Technical Document No. 23 ¦ 2015 This Tool outlines the key measures to be taken to minimize impacts on public health during the whole cycle of flood management — from flood planning and preparedness to response and post-flood relief and recovery. In the first phase, actions should be aimed at mitigating adverse impacts of floods on human health and environmental health services, particularly water supply and sanitation, food hygiene and vector control. The response stage should be centered on implementing an operational plan to assess damage and ensure emergency operation of water supply and sanitation systems and health-care services. Finally, in the aftermath of floods, recovery programmes should focus on activities to reinstate water quality, restore essential health services and rehabilitate critical infrastructure. The Tool also recommends creating mechanisms that involve stakeholders and local communities in the planning process, so that the health and sanitation conditions of all social groups are equally taken into account.