Flood forecasting and warning as a focused activity in the hydrometeorological sector relates to the non-structural measures for flood management under the overall framework of the Integrated Flood Management (IFM) approach to be applied at the National, regional, or local level.
Flood forecasting and warning services should ultimately operate with the National Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHSs) in support of the civil protection and emergency response services. Forecasting and warning services are developed, in most cases, to deliver reliable and timely information to the civil protection services as well as to the general public. This should be constituted with enough lead time to allow stakeholders to take measures to protect themselves from flooding or take appropriate actions.
In line with the Sendai Framework, E2E-FFEWS is a WMO framework to promote the enhancement of flood forecasting and early warning capabilities of NMHSs, which is interoperable at all levels from data collection to informing users and decision support systems.
The essential components under the complete framework of End-to-End Flood Forecasting and Early Warning Systems are highlighted as below:
a. Collection of real-time data for the prediction of flood severity, including time of onset and extent and magnitude of flooding;
b. Preparation of forecast information and warning messages, giving clear statements on what is happening, forecasts of what may happen and expected impact;
c. Warning Communication and notification of such messages, which can also include what action should be taken;
d. Interpretation of the forecast and flood observations, in order to provide situation updates to determine possible impacts on communities and infrastructure;
e. Response to the warnings by the agencies and communities involved;
f. Review of the warning system and improvements to the system after flood events.
E2E FFEWS knowledge and capacities developed by governments, response and recovery organizations, communities, and individuals will effectively support in anticipating, preparedness, and response to the impacts of likely, imminent, or current flood events.