How to identify stakeholders?

Stakeholders involved in IFM can be divided into seven groups:

  • Government ministries, departments and agencies;
  • Flood-prone communities;
  • Other basin communities;
  • Scientific institutions;
  • Registered NGOs;
  • Voluntary organizations;
  • The private sector.

In a welfare state, governments have the prime responsibility of ensuring the safety and wellbeing of its citizens. Flood management, which is closely linked to other development activities in the basin, particularly water resources management is no exception. Development activities carried out by various government agencies have an effect on flood risks within a basin. It is, therefore, important that all relevant departments at the national, state, district and municipal levels be part of the stakeholder group devising flood management strategies and take part in flood management planning. Most of these agencies are also involved in flood disaster preparedness. Institutions engaged in disaster management are important stakeholders, as their interaction with flood-prone communities, NGOs and voluntary organizations is crucial during flood emergency operations.

Flood-prone communities are at the core of all flood management activities and are major stakeholders. In addition, other basin communities also influence flood risks through land use change and can play an important role. The behaviour of communities involved in watershed and forest management can also influence flood management policies and practices in the basin. Communities affected occasionally by controlled flooding aimed at preventing flooding of strategic areas should also form part of flood-prone groups. NGOs can influence the behaviour of stakeholders, particularly basin communities, by building awareness and disseminating information and can help flood-prone communities organize themselves. Technical NGOs can provide information about the complex and uncertain state of knowledge and processes to the man on the street in readily understandable language and help them voice their concerns. They can also provide important input by presenting unbiased scientific studies. In flood emergency situations a number of humanitarian and voluntary organizations come forward and play a crucial role during emergency response. Similarly, the private sector, which is directly or indirectly affected by flooding is an important stakeholder.